Cryopreservation of cells to understand the effects of ultra- low temperatures on the cytoskeleton of cellular membranes:
In this study it is envisaged to understand the molecular basis of the differential changes that occur during subject to ultra-low temperatures. Among many uses, these temperatures are necessary for storage of cells, like ovum, during IVF treatments, and also for storage of germplasm for future use.
However, it has been observed that significant level of cell death occurs in the first 24 to 48 hours post-thaw as a result of delayed apoptotic and necrotic events, a phenomenon termed as cryopreservation- induced delayed- onset cell death [CIDOCD]. Thus, we aim to understand the molecular mechanism of water crystallization in order to maintain maximum cell viability during processing.
Ice crystal structures in a sucrose model solution with the addition of different AFPIII-concentrations (antifreeze protein) after 70 hours storing time, storing temperature: -8 °C (source: Chemie Ingenieur Technik 2004, 76, no. 4, Volker Gaukel and Walter E.L. Spieß)
- Indignization of Patch Clamp
Detection and Processing Of Full Channel Ionic Current Using Patch Clamp Technique
It is nearly 20 years since the introduction of the ion-channel patch-clamp recording technique, and over the last two decades its refinements and diverse applications such as Drug discovery have served to maintain it as the dominant technique in membrane physiology. Patch clamp technique was introduced by Neher and Sakmann (1976) for recording a current in the small patch of membrane under voltage clamp conditions, most notably the development of “gigaseal” by E.Neher (1981).
Patch clamp has been an essential tool in the study of ion channels. Drug discovery, however often requires high throughput methods given the large number of compounds in compound libraries that must be screened. Conventional patch clamp is a very high resolution technique, supplying both high quality data and high information content. Despite these advantages it remains a low efficiency technique such that even a skilled patch clamper can record data from only 20-30 cells during an 8-hour work day. In response to this major limitation, several companies have developed automated patch clamp systems that can record from hundreds to thousands of cells a day. Before automated path clamp systems, there were indirect high throughput assays such as binding assays, voltage-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and flux assays. While these techniques are suited for high-throughput recordings, the information provided by them are extremely limited because they are not functional assays. Hits are often false-negatives or false-positives and each hit must be subjected to conventional patch clamp. False negatives can be particularly dangerous when screening for hERG blockade, especially when there are a large number of false negatives. This emphasizes the importance of confirmatory patch clamp measurements, and also emphasizes the importance of high content screening.
In this project, the design, implementation, simulation and recording of ultra low current by using transimpedence amplifier, are described, with the current sensitivity in the range of femto ampheres. Capacitive-feedback is used with active load to obtain a 20MΩ transimpedance gain. The challenging task in designing includes achieving adequate performance in gain, noise immunity and stability. The final results are recorded on a computer software which can be further analyzed for research purpose
- Stem Cell Differentiation
Understanding the Relationship between Stem Cells and Cancer Cells
Stem cells and its allied field would become a major force in the area of bio-medicine /technology in the next few years as we move forward in an ever changing health care industry. The stem cell research would be an important breakthrough in the programming of cells to differentiate into targeted organs which can be employed to replenish the malfunction tissues in the human body. This milestone research would have strategic value for the growing market of impaired people who have lost hope and rendered ineffective for the productive utilization in their daily affairs and global economy.
The current program envisages in the establishment of a laboratory which focuses on tissue culture of human tissues/cells that would yield effectively in bring down the impaired cases. Our primary research would attach great significance to the reduction of proliferation of cancer cells and targeting these programming cells to behave like beneficiary tissues. We would be growing cells in the laboratory under sterilized conditions which eventually regenerate stem cells into organs of productive system.
This project will lead to marked improvement and can benefit those people who are suffering from genetic mutation, leukemia, Alzheimer’s and physical impairment…this cornerstone discovery is a new hope and survival beckon light for many people in the globe. This would be one of the first research centres to take this bold initiative for the betterment of mankind in terms of human tissue culture/ stem cells
- SZABIST Diagnostic Centre
SZABIST Diagnostic Centre
Stem cell research center (SCRC) has a well established diagnostic laboratory for the testing of blood samples. The aim of this facility is to provide blood testing service to the people living in remote areas. SCRC has also started mobile diagnostic laboratory service and have scheduled the visits to villages which lack diagnostic facilities and are situated in the poor and deprived areas of Pakistan.
SZABIST diagnostic laboratory is conducting all diagnostic tests free of cost. Currently SZABIST diagnostic laboratory is screening blood for following diseases.
1. Hepatitis B
2. Hepatitis C
In the most recent activity SZABIST diagnostic laboratory members visited Jaffer Jukhio Goth which is near Gharo city and conducted HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Thalassemia tests and blood group (ABO) typing and studied the prevalence of these diseases.
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology [SZABIST] Research Villa, F-172/1, Clifton, 75230, Karachi, Pakistan